Middle School


This course begins by connecting ratio and rate to multiplication and division, allowing students to use ratio reasoning to solve a wide variety of problems. Students further apply their understanding of multiplication and division to explain the standard procedure for dividing fractions. This course builds upon previous notions of the number system to now include the entire set of rational numbers. Students begin to understand the use of variables as they write, evaluate, and simplify expressions. They use the idea of equality and properties of operations to solve one-step equations and inequalities. In statistics, students explore different graphical ways to display data. They use data displays, measures of center, and measures of variability to summarize data sets. The course concludes with students reasoning about relationships among shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume.


This course begins with an in-depth study of proportional reasoning during which students utilize concrete models such as bar diagrams and tables to increase and develop conceptual understanding of rates, ratios, proportions, and percentages. Students’ number fluency and understanding of the rational number system are extended as they perform operations with signed rational numbers embedded in real-world contexts. In statistics, students develop meanings for representative samples, measures of central tendency, variation, and the ideal representation for comparisons of given data sets. Students develop an understanding of both theoretical and experimental probability. Throughout the course, students build fluency in writing expressions and equations that model real-world scenarios. They apply their understanding of inverse operations to solve multi-step equations and inequalities. Students build on their proportional reasoning to solve problems about scale drawings by relating the corresponding lengths between objects. The course concludes with a geometric analysis of angle relationships, area, and volume of both two- and three-dimensional figures.


The course begins with a unit on input-output relationships that builds a foundation for learning about functions. Students make connections between verbal, numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of relations and apply this knowledge to create linear functions that can be used to model and solve mathematical and real-world problems. Technology is used to build deeper connections among representations. Students focus on formulating expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and writing and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations. Students develop a deeper understanding of how translations, rotations, reflections, and dilations of distances and angles affect congruency and similarity. Students develop rules of exponents and use them to simplify exponential expressions. Students extend rules of exponents as they perform operations with numbers in scientific notation. Estimating and comparing square roots of non-perfect squares to perfect squares exposes students to irrational numbers and lays the foundation for applications such as the Pythagorean theorem, distance, and volume.